The star corps; or, Notes of an army chaplain, during Sherman's famous "march to the sea."
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ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Tom attended the preparatory department of Georgetown College and graduated with a B. He received a law degree from Washington University in St. Louis in and was admitted to the bar, but to his father's great and lasting displeasure he soon gave up the profession of the law in order to study for priesthood in the Roman Catholic Church. That same year he joined the Jesuit Order and studied for three years in Jesuit novitiates in London, England , and Frederick, Maryland. He was ordained as priest in and belonged to the Western Province of the Jesuit Order headquarters in St.
He taught for some years in Jesuit colleges, principally in St. He presided over General Sherman's funeral Mass in and served as an army chaplain during the Spanish—American War of He was in demand as a public lecturer and frequently spoke against anti-Catholic prejudice in the United States. While in his mid-fifties, he began experiencing mental problems and long bouts of clinical depression.
The election of William Linn as first Chaplain of the House on May 1, , continued the tradition established by the Second Continental Congress of each day's proceedings opening with a prayer by a chaplain. Shortly after Congress first convened in April in New York City, one of its "first orders of business" was to convene a committee to recommend a Chaplain,  eventually selecting the Reverend William Linn as the first Chaplain of the United States House of Representatives.
On the 9th of that month Oliver Ellsworth was appointed, on the part of the Senate, to confer with a committee of the House on Rules, and on the appointment of chaplains. The result of their consultation was a recommendation to appoint two chaplains of different denominations - one by the Senate and one by the House - to interchange weekly.
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The Senate appointed Dr. Provost, on the 25th of April. On the 1st day of May, Washington's first speech was read to the House, and the first business after the speech was the appointment of Dr. The law of was passed in compliance with their [the joint committee's] plan, giving chaplains a salary It was reenacted in , and continues to the present time.
Originally the chaplain was not an official of the House. A concurrent resolution named two clergymen of different denominations, who, interchanging weekly supplied the Senate and House.
When the body moved to Philadelphia in , and then to Washington, D. Clergy have served in the official position of House Chaplain for all years since the office was created except for the brief period of and the Senate has had chaplains for every year except The "status [of the chaplain] remained unfixed. It was objected that neither the Constitution nor the law recognized such an officer, and not until the payment of his salary depended upon his taking the ironclad oath , adopted in did his official character become established.
Since , the Chaplain's Prayer has been included in the Congressional Record. The Chaplain of the House of Representatives and the Chaplain of the Senate became full-time positions in the middle of the 20th century. The Chaplain must be elected to a two-year term at "the beginning of each Congress".
Selection of House Chaplains has "generally not been subject to party considerations". The question of the constitutionality of the position of the House Chaplain as well as that of the Senate Chaplain, and at times, that of military chaplains as well , has been a subject of study and debate over the centuries. President James Madison was an example of a leader who ultimately came to think that the positions of Senate and House Chaplains could not be constitutionally supported, although whether he always held this view and to what extent he believed it at various times during his life is a subject of debate.
Is the appointment of Chaplains to the two Houses of Congress consistent with the Constitution, and with the pure principle of religious freedom? In strictness the answer on both points must be in the negative.
The Constitution of the U. The law appointing Chaplains establishes a religious worship for the national representatives, to be performed by Ministers of religion, elected by a majority of them; and these are to be paid out of the national taxes. Does not this involve the principle of a national establishment, applicable to a provision for a religious worship for the Constituent as well as of the representative Body, approved by the majority, and conducted by Ministers of religion paid by the entire nation.
The establishment of the chaplainship to Congress is a palpable violation of equal rights, as well as of Constitutional principles: Could a Catholic clergyman ever hope to be appointed a Chaplain?
Thomas Ewing Sherman
To say that his religious principles are obnoxious or that his sect is small, is to lift the evil at once and exhibit in its naked deformity the doctrine that religious truth is to be tested by numbers, or that the major sects have a right to govern the minor. Due to the prolonged struggle to elect a Speaker of the House in no official chaplain was named either.
To continue the tradition of opening with prayer local D. According to the Clerk of the House "Their prayers, it seems, too often evinced something of the partisan spirit [over slavery and State's rights] that characterized the pending controversy, and in the following Congress certain Members who claimed that the employment of chaplains conflicted with the spirit of the Constitution and tended to promote a union of church and state, made a determined effort to discontinue their use.
This aroused the churches of the country". The constitutionality question has been examined in a number of court cases. The constitutionality of legislative chaplains was upheld in by the Supreme Court Marsh v.
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The Court cited the practice going back to the Continental Congress in and noted that the custom "is deeply embedded in the history and tradition of this country" from colonial times and the founding of the republic.